Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks

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【英文名称】Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks

【中文名称】中华人民共和国商业银行法

【发布部门】全国人民代表大会常务委员会

【发文字号】主席令第34号

【发布日期】2015.08.29

【实施日期】1995.07.01

【效力级别】国家法律

【法律时效】现行有效


Order of the President of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国主席令
(No. 34)

  The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Amending the Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks, as adopted at the 16th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on August 29, 2015, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on October 1, 2015.

  《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于修改〈中华人民共和国商业银行法〉的决定》已由中华人民共和国第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次会议于2015年8月29日通过,现予公布,自2015年10月1日起施行。

        President of the People's Republic of China Xijinping

        中华人民共和国主席 习近平

        2015.08.29


Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks
《中华人民共和国商业银行法》中英文双语版

(Adopted at the 13th Session of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on May 10, 1995, and amended according to the Decision on Modifying the Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks as adopted by the Sixth Session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress on December 27,2003; amended according to the Decision on Amending the Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks as adopted by the 16th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress on August 29,2015)

(1995年5月10日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十三次会议通过 根据2003年12月27日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国商业银行法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2015年8月29日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国商业银行法〉的决定》第二次修正)

Chapter I General Provisions / 第一章 总 则

Article 1 This Law is enacted in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of commercial banks, depositors and other clients, to standardize the behavior of commercial banks, to raise the quality of credit assets, to strengthen supervision and control, to ensure the stable and sound operation of commercial banks, to maintain financial order and to promote the development of the socialist market economy.

第一条 为了保护商业银行、存款人和其他客户的合法权益,规范商业银行的行为,提高信贷资产质量,加强监督管理,保障商业银行的稳健运行,维护金融秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,制定本法。

Article 2 For the purposes of this Law, the term “commercial banks” means enterprise legal persons that are established in conformity with this Law and the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China and that take in deposits from the general public, grant loans, handle settlements, etc.

第二条 本法所称的商业银行是指依照本法和《中华人民共和国公司法》设立的吸收公众存款、发放贷款、办理结算等业务的企业法人。

Article 3 Commercial banks may engage in some or all of the following business operations:

(1) taking in deposits from the general public;

(2) granting short-term, medium-term and long-term loans;

(3) handling domestic and foreign settlements;

(4) handling the acceptance and discounting of negotiable instruments;

(5) issuing financial bonds;

(6) acting as an agent for the issue, honoring and underwriting of government bonds;

(7) buying and selling government bonds and financial bonds;

(8) engaging in interbank lending;

(9) buying and selling foreign exchange and acting as an agent for the purchase and sale of foreign exchange;

(10) engaging in the business of bank cards;

(11) providing letter of credit services and guaranty;

(12) acting as an agent for the receipt and payment of money and acting as an insurance agent;

(13) providing safe deposit box services; and

(14) other business operations as approved by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

The scope of business shall be specified in the articles of association of the commercial bank, and submitted to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council for approval.

Upon approval of the People’s Bank of China, commercial banks may engage in the business of the settlement and sale of foreign exchange.

第三条 商业银行可以经营下列部分或者全部业务:

(一)吸收公众存款;

(二)发放短期、中期和长期贷款;

(三)办理国内外结算;

(四)办理票据承兑与贴现;

(五)发行金融债券;

(六)代理发行、代理兑付、承销政府债券;

(七)买卖政府债券、金融债券;

(八)从事同业拆借;

(九)买卖、代理买卖外汇;

(十)从事银行卡业务;

(十一)提供信用证服务及担保;

(十二)代理收付款项及代理保险业务;

(十三)提供保管箱服务;

(十四)经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准的其他业务。

经营范围由商业银行章程规定,报国务院银行业监督管理机构批准。

商业银行经中国人民银行批准,可以经营结汇、售汇业务。

Article 4 The business operations of commercial banks shall be governed by the principles of safety, liquidity and efficiency. Commercial banks shall make their own decisions regarding their business operations, take responsibility for their own risks, assume sole responsibility for their profits and losses and exercise self-restriction.

Commercial banks shall, pursuant to law, conduct business operations without interference from any unit or individual.

Commercial banks shall independently assume civil liability with their entire legal person property.

第四条 商业银行以安全性、流动性、效益性为经营原则,实行自主经营,自担风险,自负盈亏,自我约束。

商业银行依法开展业务,不受任何单位和个人的干涉。

商业银行以其全部法人财产独立承担民事责任。

Article 5 Commercial banks shall adhere to the principles of equality, voluntariness, fairness and good faith in business dealings with their clients.

第五条 商业银行与客户的业务往来,应当遵循平等、自愿、公平和诚实信用的原则。

Article 6 Commercial banks shall safeguard the lawful rights and interests of depositors against infringement by any unit or individual.

第六条 商业银行应当保障存款人的合法权益不受任何单位和个人的侵犯。

Article 7 In credit transactions, commercial banks shall strictly examine the credit-worthiness of a borrower and implement the system of guaranty in order to ensure that the loan is recovered on schedule.

Commercial banks shall be protected by law when they recover the principal of loans that have become due and the interest thereon from the borrowers in accordance with legal provisions.

第七条 商业银行开展信贷业务,应当严格审查借款人的资信,实行担保,保障按期收回贷款。

商业银行依法向借款人收回到期贷款的本金和利息,受法律保护。

Article 8 In business transactions, commercial banks shall abide by the relevant provisions of laws and administrative rules and regulations and may not harm the interests of the State or of the public.

第八条 商业银行开展业务,应当遵守法律、行政法规的有关规定,不得损害国家利益、社会公共利益。

Article 9 In business transactions, commercial banks shall abide by the principle of fair competition and may not engage in illegitimate competition.

第九条 商业银行开展业务,应当遵守公平竞争的原则,不得从事不正当竞争。

Article 10 Commercial banks shall, in accordance with law, accept supervision and control of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council, but where laws provide that their relevant business operations shall be subject to supervision and control of other regulatory departments or bodies, such provisions shall prevail.

第十条 商业银行依法接受国务院银行业监督管理机构的监督管理,但法律规定其有关业务接受其他监督管理部门或者机构监督管理的,依照其规定。

Chapter II Establishment and Organizational Structure of Commercial Banks / 第二章 商业银行的设立和组织机构

Article 11 The establishment of commercial banks shall be subject to examination and approval by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

No unit or individual may engage in commercial banking business such as taking in deposits from the general public, and no unit may use the word “bank” in its name, without approval of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第十一条 设立商业银行,应当经国务院银行业监督管理机构审查批准。

未经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准,任何单位和个人不得从事吸收公众存款等商业银行业务,任何单位不得在名称中使用“银行”字样。

Article 12 A commercial bank shall meet the following requirements for establishment:

(1) having articles of association that conform to this Law and the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China;

(2) having the minimum amount of registered capital as specified in this Law;

(3) having directors and other senior administrators with the expertise and experience in work commensurate with the positions they are holding;

(4) having a sound organizational structure and management system; and

(5) having the required place of business, security and precautionary measures and other facilities relevant to it business operations.

The establishment of a commercial bank shall, in addition, meet other requirements of prudence.

第十二条 设立商业银行,应当具备下列条件:

(一)有符合本法和《中华人民共和国公司法》规定的章程;

(二)有符合本法规定的注册资本最低限额;

(三)有具备任职专业知识和业务工作经验的董事、高级管理人员;

(四)有健全的组织机构和管理制度;

(五)有符合要求的营业场所、安全防范措施和与业务有关的其他设施。

设立商业银行,还应当符合其他审慎性条件。

Article 13 The minimum amount of registered capital required for the establishment of a national commercial bank shall be RMB one billion yuan. The minimum amount of registered capital required for the establishment of an urban commercial bank shall be 100 million yuan, and the minimum amount of registered capital required for the establishment of a rural commercial bank shall be 50 million yuan. Registered capital shall be paid-up capital.

The banking regulatory authority under the State Council may readjust the minimum amount of registered capital on the basis of the requirements of prudent supervision and control, however, the readjusted amount may not be lower than the amount specified in the preceding paragraph.

第十三条 设立全国性商业银行的注册资本最低限额为十亿元人民币。设立城市商业银行的注册资本最低限额为一亿元人民币,设立农村商业银行的注册资本最低限额为五千万元人民币。注册资本应当是实缴资本。

国务院银行业监督管理机构根据审慎监管的要求可以调整注册资本最低限额,但不得少于前款规定的限额。

Article 14 To establish a commercial bank, the applicant shall provide the following documents and information to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council:

(1) a written application, in which the name, location, registered capital, scope of business, etc. of the proposed commercial bank are clearly stated ;

(2) a feasibility study; and

(3) other documents and information to be provided as specified by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第十四条 设立商业银行,申请人应当向国务院银行业监督管理机构提交下列文件、资料:

(一)申请书,申请书应当载明拟设立的商业银行的名称、所在地、注册资本、业务范围等;

(二)可行性研究报告;

(三)国务院银行业监督管理机构规定提交的其他文件、资料。

Article 15 If an application for establishing a commercial bank is found, after examination, to be in conformity with the provisions of Article 14 of this Law, the applicant shall complete an official application form and provide the following documents and information:

(1) a draft of the articles of association;

(2) the qualification certificates of the director or other senior administrator who is to hold office; (3) an investment verification certificate issued by a statutory investment verification organization;

(4) a list of the names, capital contributions and shares of shareholders;

(5) credit-worthiness certificates and relevant information concerning the shareholders that hold five percent or more of the registered capital each;

(6) business policies and plans;

(7) information concerning the place of business, security and precautionary measures and other facilities relevant to business operations; and

(8) other documents and information as specified by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第十五条 设立商业银行的申请经审查符合本法第十四条规定的,申请人应当填写正式申请表,并提交下列文件、资料:

(一)章程草案;

(二)拟任职的董事、高级管理人员的资格证明;

(三)法定验资机构出具的验资证明;

(四)股东名册及其出资额、股份;

(五)持有注册资本百分之五以上的股东的资信证明和有关资料;

(六)经营方针和计划;

(七)营业场所、安全防范措施和与业务有关的其他设施的资料;

(八)国务院银行业监督管理机构规定的其他文件、资料。

Article 16 A commercial bank the establishment of which has been approved shall be issued a permit for operation by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council and, on the strength of such permit, register with the administrative department of industry and commerce and obtain a business license from it.

第十六条 经批准设立的商业银行,由国务院银行业监督管理机构颁发经营许可证,并凭该许可证向工商行政管理部门办理登记,领取营业执照。

Article 17 The organizational form and structure of commercial banks shall be governed by the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China.

Commercial banks, established prior to the implementation of this Law, that do not entirely conform to the provisions of the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China in organizational form and structure may continue to be governed by previous regulations. The date on which the preceding paragraph shall apply to such commercial banks shall be specified by the State Council.

第十七条 商业银行的组织形式、组织机构适用《中华人民共和国公司法》的规定。

本法施行前设立的商业银行,其组织形式、组织机构不完全符合《中华人民共和国公司法》规定的,可以继续沿用原有的规定,适用前款规定的日期由国务院规定。

Article 18 A board of supervisors shall be established in a wholly State-owned commercial bank. Measures for forming the board of supervisors shall be formulated by the State Council.

The board of supervisors shall exercise supervision over the quality of credit assets of the wholly State-owned commercial bank, its assets-liabilities ratios and maintenance of and increase in the value of State-owned assets, and over the senior administrators of the commercial bank to see whether they violate any laws, administrative rules and regulations or the articles of association or commit any acts which harm the interests of the bank.

第十八条 国有独资商业银行设立监事会。监事会的产生办法由国务院规定。

监事会对国有独资商业银行的信贷资产质量、资产负债比例、国有资产保值增值等情况以及高级管理人员违反法律、行政法规或者章程的行为和损害银行利益的行为进行监督。

Article 19 Commercial banks may establish branches within and outside the People’s Republic of China, in light of their needs in business operations. The establishment of such a branch shall be subject to examination and approval by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council. The establishment of branches within the People’s Republic of China shall not be restricted by the administrative division of regions.

When a commercial bank establishes a branch within the People’s Republic of China, it shall allocate operating funds in keeping with the scale of its business, in accordance with regulations. The sum total of operating funds allocated to all the branches may not exceed 60 percent of the total amount of the capital of the head office.

第十九条 商业银行根据业务需要可以在中华人民共和国境内外设立分支机构。设立分支机构必须经国务院银行业监督管理机构审查批准。在中华人民共和国境内的分支机构,不按行政区划设立。

商业银行在中华人民共和国境内设立分支机构,应当按照规定拨付与其经营规模相适应的营运资金额。拨付各分支机构营运资金额的总和,不得超过总行资本金总额的百分之六十。

Article 20 To establish a branch of a commercial bank, the applicant shall submit the following documents and information to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council:

(1) a written application, in which the name, amount of operating funds and scope of business of the proposed branch, the location of the head office and the branch, etc. are clearly stated;

(2) the applicant’s financial and accounting reports of the preceding two years; (3) the qualification certificates of the senior administrators who are to hold office;

(4) business policies and plans;

(5) information concerning the place of business, security and precautionary measures and other facilities relevant to business operations; and

(6) other documents and information as specified by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第二十条 设立商业银行分支机构,申请人应当向国务院银行业监督管理机构提交下列文件、资料:

(一)申请书,申请书应当载明拟设立的分支机构的名称、营运资金额、业务范围、总行及分支机构所在地等;

(二)申请人最近二年的财务会计报告;

(三)拟任职的高级管理人员的资格证明;

(四)经营方针和计划;

(五)营业场所、安全防范措施和与业务有关的其他设施的资料;

(六)国务院银行业监督管理机构规定的其他文件、资料。

Article 21 A commercial bank’s branch the establishment of which has been approved shall be issued a permit for operation by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council and, on the strength of such permit, register with the administrative department of industry and commerce and obtain a business license from it.

第二十一条 经批准设立的商业银行分支机构,由国务院银行业监督管理机构颁发经营许可证,并凭该许可证向工商行政管理部门办理登记,领取营业执照。

Article 22 With respect to their branches, commercial banks shall apply across the board a financial system of centralized accounting and centralized movement of funds, and of management at different levels.

Branches of commercial banks shall not have the status of a legal person and shall lawfully conduct their business operations within the scope authorized by their head offices, and their civil liability shall be assumed by their head offices.

第二十二条 商业银行对其分支机构实行全行统一核算,统一调度资金,分级管理的财务制度。

商业银行分支机构不具有法人资格,在总行授权范围内依法开展业务,其民事责任由总行承担。

Article 23 The banking regulatory authority under the State Council shall announce its approval of the establishment of commercial banks and their branches.

If a commercial bank or branch thereof fails, without good reason, to commence business more than six months after the date of obtaining its business license or, after commencing business, suspends business without authorization for six months or more in succession, the banking regulatory authority under the State Council shall revoke its permit for operation and make it known to the public.

第二十三条 经批准设立的商业银行及其分支机构,由国务院银行业监督管理机构予以公告。

商业银行及其分支机构自取得营业执照之日起无正当理由超过六个月未开业的,或者开业后自行停业连续六个月以上的,由国务院银行业监督管理机构吊销其经营许可证,并予以公告。

Article 24 A commercial bank shall obtain the approval of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council for making any of the following changes:

(1) change of name;

(2) change in the registered capital;

(3) change of location of the head office or a branch;

(4) adjustment of the scope of business;

(5) change of shareholders that hold five percent or more of the total amount of capital or shares each;

(6) revision of the articles of association; or

(7) changes in other matters as are governed by the regulations of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

When a director or a senior administrator is to be replaced, the qualifications of the substitute for the position shall be submitted to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council for examination.

第二十四条 商业银行有下列变更事项之一的,应当经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准:

(一)变更名称;

(二)变更注册资本;

(三)变更总行或者分支行所在地;

(四)调整业务范围;

(五)变更持有资本总额或者股份总额百分之五以上的股东;

(六)修改章程;

(七)国务院银行业监督管理机构规定的其他变更事项。

更换董事、高级管理人员时,应当报经国务院银行业监督管理机构审查其任职资格。

Article 25 Division and merger of commercial banks shall be governed by the provisions of the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China.

Division and merger of commercial banks shall be subject to examination and approval by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第二十五条 商业银行的分立、合并,适用《中华人民共和国公司法》的规定。

商业银行的分立、合并,应当经国务院银行业监督管理机构审查批准。

Article 26 Commercial banks shall use their permits for operation in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative rules and regulations. Forging, alteration, assigning, leasing out or lending of such permits is prohibited.

第二十六条 商业银行应当依照法律、行政法规的规定使用经营许可证。禁止伪造、变造、转让、出租、出借经营许可证。

Article 27 None of the following persons may serve as a director or a senior administrator of a commercial bank:

(1) persons who have been sentenced to criminal punishment for the crime of embezzlement, bribery, seizure or misappropriation of property or disruption of the public and economic order, or persons who have been deprived of their political rights for committing a crime;

(2) directors of companies or enterprises, or factory directors or managers who have been subjected to bankruptcy liquidation due to mismanagement, and who bear personal liability for the bankruptcy;

(3) legal representatives of companies or enterprises that had their business licenses revoked for breaking law, who bear personal liability therefor; and

(4) persons with comparatively large amounts of overdue personal debts .

第二十七条 有下列情形之一的,不得担任商业银行的董事、高级管理人员:

(一)因犯有贪污、贿赂、侵占财产、挪用财产罪或者破坏社会经济秩序罪,被判处刑罚,或者因犯罪被剥夺政治权利的;

(二)担任因经营不善破产清算的公司、企业的董事或者厂长、经理,并对该公司、企业的破产负有个人责任的;

(三)担任因违法被吊销营业执照的公司、企业的法定代表人,并负有个人责任的;

(四)个人所负数额较大的债务到期未清偿的。

Article 28 Purchase by any unit or individual of five percent or more of the total amount of the shares of a commercial bank shall be subject to prior approval by the People’s Bank of China.

第二十八条 任何单位和个人购买商业银行股份总额百分之五以上的,应当事先经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准。

Chapter III Protection of Depositors / 第三章 对存款人的保护

Article 29 In handling savings deposits for individuals, commercial banks shall adhere to the principles of voluntary deposit, unimpeded withdrawal, interest payment on deposits and confidentiality for the depositors.

Commercial banks shall have the right to refuse to answer the inquiries into and to refuse to freeze, deduct or transfer an individual’s savings deposits-- as made or requested by any unit or individual, except where otherwise provided for by law.

第二十九条 商业银行办理个人储蓄存款业务,应当遵循存款自愿、取款自由、存款有息、为存款人保密的原则。

对个人储蓄存款,商业银行有权拒绝任何单位或者个人查询、冻结、扣划,但法律另有规定的除外。

Article 30 Commercial banks shall have the right to refuse to answer the inquiries into a unit’s deposits by any other unit or individual, except where otherwise provided for by laws and administrative rules and regulations, and shall have the right to refuse to freeze, deduct or transfer a unit’s deposits as requested by any other unit or individual, except where otherwise provided for by law.

第三十条 对单位存款,商业银行有权拒绝任何单位或者个人查询,但法律、行政法规另有规定的除外;有权拒绝任何单位或者个人冻结、扣划,但法律另有规定的除外。

Article 31 Commercial banks shall determine the interest rates on deposits in accordance with the upper and lower limits interest rates on deposits specified by the People’s Bank of China and make them known to the public.

第三十一条 商业银行应当按照中国人民银行规定的存款利率的上下限,确定存款利率,并予以公告。

Article 32 Commercial banks shall place a deposit reserve with the People’s Bank of China and maintain sufficient provision for payment, in accordance with the regulations of the People’s Bank of China.

第三十二条 商业银行应当按照中国人民银行的规定,向中国人民银行交存存款准备金,留足备付金。

Article 33 Commercial banks shall guaranty, and may not delay or refuse, payment of the principal of deposits and the interest thereon.

第三十三条 商业银行应当保证存款本金和利息的支付,不得拖延、拒绝支付存款本金和利息。

Chapter IV Basic Rules for Loans and Other Business Operations / 第四章 贷款和其他业务的基本规则

Article 34 Commercial banks shall conduct their business of lending in accordance with the needs of the national economic and social development and under the guidance of the industrial policies of the State.

第三十四条 商业银行根据国民经济和社会发展的需要,在国家产业政策指导下开展贷款业务。

Article 35 Before granting a loan, commercial banks shall strictly examine the borrower’s purpose for the loan, ability to repay the loan, method of repayment, etc.

When granting a loan, commercial banks shall implement the system of separating the examination of a loan from the actual provision of the loan and the system of examination and approval at different levels.

第三十五条 商业银行贷款,应当对借款人的借款用途、偿还能力、还款方式等情况进行严格审查。

商业银行贷款,应当实行审贷分离、分级审批的制度。

Article 36 To obtain a loan from a commercial bank, a borrower shall provide a guaranty. The commercial bank shall strictly examine the surety’s ability to repay the loan, the ownership and value of the mortgage or the collateral and the feasibility of realizing the right of mortgage or right of pledge.

If, after examination and appraisal by a commercial bank, a borrower’s credit is found to be good, and the borrower is deemed truly able to repay the loan, the borrower need not provide a guaranty .

第三十六条 商业银行贷款,借款人应当提供担保。商业银行应当对保证人的偿还能力,抵押物、质物的权属和价值以及实现抵押权、质权的可行性进行严格审查。

经商业银行审查、评估,确认借款人资信良好,确能偿还贷款的,可以不提供担保。

Article 37 For granting a loan, the commercial bank shall conclude a written contract with the borrower. The contract shall stipulate the type, purpose, amount and interest rate of the loan, the time limit for repayment, the method of repayment, liability for breach of contract and other matters deemed necessary by the parties.

第三十七条 商业银行贷款,应当与借款人订立书面合同。合同应当约定贷款种类、借款用途、金额、利率、还款期限、还款方式、违约责任和双方认为需要约定的其他事项。

Article 38 Commercial banks shall determine loan interest rate in accordance with the upper and lower limits for loan interest rates prescribed by the People’s Bank of China.

第三十八条 商业银行应当按照中国人民银行规定的贷款利率的上下限,确定贷款利率。

Article 39 When granting a loan, commercial banks shall abide by the following provisions on the control of assets-liabilities ratios:

(1) the capital adequacy ratio may not be lower than 8 percent;

(2) the ratio of the balance of floating assets to the balance of floating liabilities may not be lower than 25 percent;

(3) the ratio of the outstanding of loans granted to the same borrower to the balance of the capital of the commercial bank may not exceed 10 percent; and

(4) other provisions of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council concerning the control of assets-liabilities ratios.

If, after the implementation of this Law, the assets-liabilities ratios of a commercial bank established prior to the implementation of this Law are found not in conformity with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the bank shall make it conform to the provisions of the preceding paragraph within a certain time limit. The specific measures therefor shall be formulated by the State Council.

第三十九条 商业银行贷款,应当遵守下列资产负债比例管理的规定:

(一)资本充足率不得低于百分之八;

(二)流动性资产余额与流动性负债余额的比例不得低于百分之二十五;

(三)对同一借款人的贷款余额与商业银行资本余额的比例不得超过百分之十;

(四)国务院银行业监督管理机构对资产负债比例管理的其他规定。

本法施行前设立的商业银行,在本法施行后,其资产负债比例不符合前款规定的,应当在一定的期限内符合前款规定。具体办法由国务院规定。

Article 40 Commercial banks may not grant fiduciary loans to their connections. The conditions for granting secured loans to their connections may not be more preferential than those for granting the same type of loans to other borrowers.

For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, the term “connections” means:

(1) directors, supervisors, administrators and loan officers of the commercial bank and close relatives of such persons;

(2) companies, enterprises and other economic organizations in which the persons mentioned in the preceding paragraph have invested or in which they hold senior administrative positions.

第四十条 商业银行不得向关系人发放信用贷款;向关系人发放担保贷款的条件不得优于其他借款人同类贷款的条件。

前款所称关系人是指:

(一)商业银行的董事、监事、管理人员、信贷业务人员及其近亲属;

(二)前项所列人员投资或者担任高级管理职务的公司、企业和其他经济组织。

Article 41 No unit or individual may forcibly demand a commercial bank to grant a loan or to provide a guaranty. Commercial banks shall have the right to refuse to grant a loan or to provide a guaranty forcibly demanded by any unit or individual.

第四十一条 任何单位和个人不得强令商业银行发放贷款或者提供担保。商业银行有权拒绝任何单位和个人强令要求其发放贷款或者提供担保。

Article 42 Borrowers shall repay the loan principal and the interest thereon on schedule.

If a borrower fails to repay a secured loan upon maturity, the commercial bank shall lawfully have the right to require the surety to repay the loan principal and the interest thereon or the right to preferential compensation in respect of the collateral. Immovable property or stock rights obtained by a commercial bank through the exercise of the right of mortgage or the right of pledge shall be disposed of by it within two years from the date it obtains the same.

If a borrower fails to repay a fiduciary loan upon maturity, he shall bear liability in accordance with the provisions of the contract.

第四十二条 借款人应当按期归还贷款的本金和利息。

借款人到期不归还担保贷款的,商业银行依法享有要求保证人归还贷款本金和利息或者就该担保物优先受偿的权利。商业银行因行使抵押权、质权而取得的不动产或者股权,应当自取得之日起二年内予以处分。

借款人到期不归还信用贷款的,应当按照合同约定承担责任。

Article 43 No commercial banks may, within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, engage in trust investment or securities business, or invest in immovable property which is not for private use, in non-banking financial institutions or in enterprises, except where otherwise provided for in the regulations of the State.

第四十三条 商业银行在中华人民共和国境内不得从事信托投资和证券经营业务,不得向非自用不动产投资或者向非银行金融机构和企业投资,但国家另有规定的除外。

Article 44 When handling matters of settlement such as acceptance or remittance of negotiable instruments or entrusted receipt of payment, etc., commercial banks shall encash the instruments and enter receipts and expenditures in their accounts within the specified time limits, and may not deliberately delay or withhold payment of bills and negotiable instruments or reject negotiable instruments in violation of regulations. Regulations relating to the time limits for encashing of instruments and entering of receipts and expenditures in the accounts shall be announced.

第四十四条 商业银行办理票据承兑、汇兑、委托收款等结算业务,应当按照规定的期限兑现,收付入账,不得压单、压票或者违反规定退票。有关兑现、收付入账期限的规定应当公布。

Article 45 To issue financial bonds or to raise loans from outside the People’s Republic of China, commercial banks shall first submit applications for approval in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative rules and regulations.

第四十五条 商业银行发行金融债券或者到境外借款,应当依照法律、行政法规的规定报经批准。

Article 46 Inter-bank lending shall be carried out in adherence to the regulations of the People’s Bank of China. It is forbidden to use such loans for granting fixed assets loans or making investment.

Funds lent under such loans shall be limited to idle funds that remain after a sufficient reserve against deposit has been retained, sufficient provision for payment has been made and matured loans from the People’s Bank of China have been repaid. Funds borrowed under such loans shall be used to make up deficiencies in the settlement of negotiable instruments and in the funds available for covering remittance differences with correspondent banks and to meet the temporary need for working capital.

第四十六条 同业拆借,应当遵守中国人民银行的规定。禁止利用拆入资金发放固定资产贷款或者用于投资。

拆出资金限于交足存款准备金、留足备付金和归还中国人民银行到期贷款之后的闲置资金。拆入资金用于弥补票据结算、联行汇差头寸的不足和解决临时性周转资金的需要。

Article 47 Commercial banks may not raise or lower interest rates in violation of regulations or use other improper means to take in deposits or grant loans.

第四十七条 商业银行不得违反规定提高或者降低利率以及采用其他不正当手段,吸收存款,发放贷款。

Article 48 Enterprises and institutions may select for themselves the place of business of a commercial bank where to open a basic account for the day-to-day settlement of account transfers and for cash receipts and payments. They may not open more than one basic account.

No unit or individual may open an account in the name of an individual to deposit the funds of a unit therein.

第四十八条 企业事业单位可以自主选择一家商业银行的营业场所开立一个办理日常转账结算和现金收付的基本账户,不得开立两个以上基本账户。

任何单位和个人不得将单位的资金以个人名义开立账户存储。

Article 49 The business hours of commercial banks shall be such as to be convenient to clients and shall be announced. Commercial banks shall carry out business during announced business hours; they may not suspend business or shorten their business hours without authorization.

第四十九条 商业银行的营业时间应当方便客户,并予以公告。商业银行应当在公告的营业时间内营业,不得擅自停止营业或者缩短营业时间。

Article 50 In carrying out business operations and providing services, commercial banks shall charge commissions in accordance with relevant regulations. The items and rates for such commissions shall be specified by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council and the People’s Bank of China based on their division of responsibilities, in conjunction with the department of pricing under the State Council respectively.

第五十条 商业银行办理业务,提供服务,按照规定收取手续费。收费项目和标准由国务院银行业监督管理机构、中国人民银行根据职责分工,分别会同国务院价格主管部门制定。

Article 51 Commercial banks shall preserve their financial and accounting statements, business contracts and other materials in accordance with relevant regulations of the State.

第五十一条 商业银行应当按照国家有关规定保存财务会计报表、业务合同以及其他资料。

Article 52 Employees of commercial banks shall abide by laws and administrative rules and regulations and all other regulations for the control of business operations; they may not:

(1) use their positions to demand, receive or accept bribes, or receive or accept rebates or commissions of any description in violation of State regulations;

(2) use their positions to embezzle, misappropriate or seize money belonging to the bank or any client;

(3) practise favoritism towards relatives or friends in granting loans or providing guaranty in violation of regulations;

(4) hold a concurrent position in another economic organization; or

(5) commit other acts in violation of laws, administrative rules and regulations or other regulations for the control of business operations.

第五十二条 商业银行的工作人员应当遵守法律、行政法规和其他各项业务管理的规定,不得有下列行为:

(一)利用职务上的便利,索取、收受贿赂或者违反国家规定收受各种名义的回扣、手续费;

(二)利用职务上的便利,贪污、挪用、侵占本行或者客户的资金;

(三)违反规定徇私向亲属、朋友发放贷款或者提供担保;

(四)在其他经济组织兼职;

(五)违反法律、行政法规和业务管理规定的其他行为。

Article 53 No employees of commercial banks may disclose State or business secrets that they come to know during their employment.

第五十三条 商业银行的工作人员不得泄露其在任职期间知悉的国家秘密、商业秘密。

Chapter V Financial Affairs and Accounting / 第五章 财务会计

Article 54 Commercial banks shall establish and perfect their own financial and accounting systems in accordance with laws, the uniform accounting system of the State and the relevant regulations of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第五十四条 商业银行应当依照法律和国家统一的会计制度以及国务院银行业监督管理机构的有关规定,建立、健全本行的财务、会计制度。

Article 55 Commercial banks shall, in accordance with relevant State regulations, truthfully record and give a complete account of their business activities and financial position, draw up annual financial and accounting reports and, without delay, submit them to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council, the People’s Bank of China and the department of finance under the State Council. Commercial banks may not establish any account books in addition to statutory account books.

第五十五条 商业银行应当按照国家有关规定,真实记录并全面反映其业务活动和财务状况,编制年度财务会计报告,及时向国务院银行业监督管理机构、中国人民银行和国务院财政部门报送。商业银行不得在法定的会计账册外另立会计账册。

Article 56 Within three months after the end of every fiscal year, commercial banks shall announce their business results and audit reports for that year in accordance with the regulations of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第五十六条 商业银行应当于每一会计年度终了三个月内,按照国务院银行业监督管理机构的规定,公布其上一年度的经营业绩和审计报告。

Article 57 Commercial banks shall, in accordance with relevant State regulations make allocations to a doubtful account reserve, in order to set off doubtful accounts.

第五十七条 商业银行应当按照国家有关规定,提取呆账准备金,冲销呆账。

Article 58 The fiscal year of commercial banks shall commence on January 1 and end on December 31 of the Gregorian calendar.

第五十八条 商业银行的会计年度自公历l月1日起至12月31日止。

Chapter VI Supervision and Control / 第六章 监督管理

Article 59 Commercial banks shall, in accordance with relevant regulations, formulate their own operating rules, and establish and perfect their systems for risk management and internal control.

第五十九条 商业银行应当按照有关规定,制定本行的业务规则,建立、健全本行的风险管理和内部控制制度。

Article 60 Commercial banks shall establish and perfect their own systems for examination and inspection of deposits, loans, settlements, doubtful accounts, etc.

Commercial banks shall conduct routine examination, inspection and supervision with respect to their branches.

第六十条 商业银行应当建立、健全本行对存款、贷款、结算、呆账等各项情况的稽核、检查制度。

商业银行对分支机构应当进行经常性的稽核和检查监督。

Article 61 Commercial banks shall, in accordance with relevant regulations, submit to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council and the People’s Bank of China their balance sheets, profit accounts and other financial, accounting and statistical statements and information.

第六十一条 商业银行应当按照规定向国务院银行业监督管理机构、中国人民银行报送资产负债表、利润表以及其他财务会计、统计报表和资料。

Article 62 The banking regulatory authority under the State Council shall have the right at any time to carry out inspection of and exercise supervision over the deposits, loans, settlements, doubtful accounts, etc. of commercial banks, in accordance with the provisions of Chapters III, IV and V of this Law. When carrying out inspection and supervision, the inspectors and supervisors shall produce their lawful identification papers. Commercial banks shall provide financial and accounting information, business contracts and other information concerning operation and management in compliance with the requirements of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

The People’s Bank of China shall have the power to inspect and supervise the commercial banks in accordance with the provisions of Articles 32 and 34 of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on People’s Bank of China.

第六十二条 国务院银行业监督管理机构有权依照本法第三章、第四章、第五章的规定,随时对商业银行的存款、贷款、结算、呆账等情况进行检查监督。检查监督时,检查监督人员应当出示合法的证件。商业银行应当按照国务院银行业监督管理机构的要求,提供财务会计资料、业务合同和有关经营管理方面的其他信息。

中国人民银行有权依照《中华人民共和国中国人民银行法》第三十二条、第三十四条的规定对商业银行进行检查监督。

Article 63 Commercial banks shall, according to law, accept supervision by audit institutions through auditing.

第六十三条 商业银行应当依法接受审计机关的审计监督。

Chapter VII Assumption of Control and Termination / 第七章 接管和终止

Article 64 When a commercial bank has suffered or will possibly suffer, credit crisis, thereby seriously affecting the interests of the depositors, the banking regulatory authority under the State Council may assume control over the bank.

The purposes of assumption of control are, through taking such measures as are necessary in respect of the commercial bank over which control is assumed, to protect the interests of the depositors and to enable the commercial bank to resume normal business. The debtor-creditor relationship with regard to a commercial bank over which control is assumed shall not change as a result of the assumption of control.

第六十四条 商业银行已经或者可能发生信用危机,严重影响存款人的利益时,国务院银行业监督管理机构可以对该银行实行接管。

接管的目的是对被接管的商业银行采取必要措施,以保护存款人的利益,恢复商业银行的正常经营能力。被接管的商业银行的债权债务关系不因接管而变化。

Article 65 The assumption of control shall be decided upon, and its implementation shall be arranged, by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council. In the decision made by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council to assume control shall be clearly stated the following particulars:

(1) the name of the commercial bank over which control is to be assumed;

(2) the reason for the assumption of control;

(3) the organization that shall assume control; and

(4) the period or time for the control.

The decision for the assumption of control shall be announced by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

第六十五条 接管由国务院银行业监督管理机构决定,并组织实施。国务院银行业监督管理机构的接管决定应当载明下列内容:

(一)被接管的商业银行名称;

(二)接管理由;

(三)接管组织;

(四)接管期限。

接管决定由国务院银行业监督管理机构予以公告。

Article 66 Control shall be assumed on the date of implementation of the decision to assume control.

Beginning on the date of assumption of control, the organization assuming control shall exercise the powers of operation and management of the commercial bank.

第六十六条 接管自接管决定实施之日起开始。

自接管开始之日起,由接管组织行使商业银行的经营管理权力。

Article 67 The banking regulatory authority under the State Council may decide to extend the period of time for control upon expiration of the time specified. However, the maximum period of time for control shall be two years.

第六十七条 接管期限届满,国务院银行业监督管理机构可以决定延期,但接管期限最长不得超过二年。

Article 68 The control shall be terminated under one of the following conditions:

(1) when the period of time specified in the decision for control has expired or the extended period of time for control decided upon by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council has expired;

(2) the commercial bank has already become able to resume normal business before expiration of the period of control; or

(3) the commercial bank is merged or is lawfully declared bankrupt before expiration of the period of control.

第六十八条 有下列情形之一的,接管终止:

(一)接管决定规定的期限届满或者国务院银行业监督管理机构决定的接管延期届满;

(二)接管期限届满前,该商业银行已恢复正常经营能力;

(三)接管期限届满前,该商业银行被合并或者被依法宣告破产。

Article 69 If a commercial bank has to be dissolved as a result of division, merger or the occurrence of a cause for dissolution as specified in the company’s articles of association, it shall submit to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council an application for dissolution, which is to be accompanied with a statement of the reasons for dissolution and a plan for settlement of debts such as repaying of the principal of the deposits together with the interest thereon. The commercial bank shall be dissolved upon approval by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

If a commercial bank is to be dissolved, a liquidation team shall be established pursuant to law. The team shall, in accordance with the plan for settlement of debts, carry out liquidation and without delay pay debts such as the principal of the deposits and the interest thereon. The banking regulatory authority under the State Council shall supervise the process of liquidation.

第六十九条 商业银行因分立、合并或者出现公司章程规定的解散事由需要解散的,应当向国务院银行业监督管理机构提出申请,并附解散的理由和支付存款的本金和利息等债务清偿计划。经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准后解散。

商业银行解散的,应当依法成立清算组,进行清算,按照清偿计划及时偿还存款本金和利息等债务。国务院银行业监督管理机构监督清算过程。

Article 70 If a commercial bank is to be dissolved because its permit for operation is revoked, the banking regulatory authority under the State Council shall without delay arrange to establish a liquidation team pursuant to law, which shall, in accordance with the plan for settlement of debts, carry out liquidation and without delay pay debts such as the principal of the deposits and the interest thereon .

第七十条 商业银行因吊销经营许可证被撤销的,国务院银行业监督管理机构应当依法及时组织成立清算组,进行清算,按照清偿计划及时偿还存款本金和利息等债务。

Article 71 If a commercial bank is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, a People’s Court shall, after obtaining consent of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council, lawfully declare it bankrupt. If a commercial bank is declared bankrupt, the People’s Court shall arrange for relevant authorities, such as the banking regulatory authority under the State Council, and relevant persons to establish a liquidation team, which shall carry out liquidation.

When liquidation is carried out after a commercial bank is declared bankrupt, payment of the principal of savings deposits of individuals and the interest thereon shall be given priority after the liquidation expenses, the wages owed to the employees and labor insurance premiums have been paid.

第七十一条 商业银行不能支付到期债务,经国务院银行业监督管理机构同意,由人民法院依法宣告其破产。商业银行被宣告破产的,由人民法院组织国务院银行业监督管理机构等有关部门和有关人员成立清算组,进行清算。

商业银行破产清算时,在支付清算费用、所欠职工工资和劳动保险费用后,应当优先支付个人储蓄存款的本金和利息。

Article 72 Commercial banks shall terminate if dissolved, closed down or declared bankrupt.

第七十二条 商业银行因解散、被撤销和被宣告破产而终止。

Chapter VIII Legal Responsibility / 第八章 法律责任

Article 73 A commercial bank shall assume liability for payment of default interest and other civil liability if the property of depositors or other clients is damaged as a result of the commercial bank’s:

(1) delay in or refusal of payment of the principal of a deposit and the interest thereon without good reason;

(2) violation of regulations concerning matters of settlement such as acceptance of negotiable instruments, etc. by refusing to encash the instruments, refusing to enter receipts and expenditures in its accounts, deliberately delaying or withholding payment under bills or negotiable instruments, or rejecting negotiable instruments in violation of regulations;

(3) illegal inquiries into, freezing, withholding or transfer of the savings deposits of individuals or the deposits of units; or (4) other acts in violation of this Law that cause damage to depositors or other clients.

If a commercial bank commits one of the acts specified in the preceding paragraph, it shall be instructed by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council to rectify and its unlawful gains shall be confiscated; if the unlawful gains exceed 50,000 yuan, it shall, in addition, be fined not less than the amount of such gains but not more than five times that amount; and if there are no unlawful gains or such gains are less than 50,000 yuan, it shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan.

第七十三条 商业银行有下列情形之一,对存款人或者其他客户造成财产损害的,应当承担支付迟延履行的利息以及其他民事责任:

(一)无故拖延、拒绝支付存款本金和利息的;

(二)违反票据承兑等结算业务规定,不予兑现,不予收付入账,压单、压票或者违反规定退票的;

(三)非法查询、冻结、扣划个人储蓄存款或者单位存款的;

(四)违反本法规定对存款人或者其他客户造成损害的其他行为。

有前款规定情形的,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,违法所得五万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五万元的,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款。

Article 74 If a commercial bank commits one of the following acts, it shall be instructed by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council to rectify; if there are unlawful gains, such gains shall be confiscated; if the unlawful gains exceed 500, 000 yuan, it shall, in addition, be fined not less than the amount of such gains but not more than five times that amount; if there are no unlawful gains or such gains are less than 500,000 yuan, it shall be fined not less than 500,000 yuan but not more than 2,000,000 yuan; if the circumstances are particularly serious, or if the bank fails to rectify at the expiration of the time limit,the banking regulatory authority under the State Council may instruct it to suspend business for rectification or may revoke its business license; and if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(1) establishing a branch without approval;

(2) dividing or merging without approval or, in violation of relevant regulations, failing to report for approval changes to be made;

(3) raising or lowering interest rates in violation of relevant regulations or taking in deposits or granting loans by other illegitimate means;

(4) leasing out or lending its business license;

(5) buying and selling, or acting as an agent for the purchase and sale of, foreign exchange without approval;

(6) buying or selling government bonds or issuing, buying or selling financial bonds without approval;

(7) in violation of relevant State regulations, engaging in trust investment and the business of securities, investing in immovable property which in not for private use, or investing in non-banking financial institutions or enterprises ; and

(8) granting fiduciary loans to its connections or granting guaranteed loans to its connections on conditions that are more preferential than those for granting the same to other borrowers.

第七十四条 商业银行有下列情形之一,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,违法所得五十万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五十万元的,处五十万元以上二百万元以下罚款;情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,可以责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)未经批准设立分支机构的;

(二)未经批准分立、合并或者违反规定对变更事项不报批的;

(三)违反规定提高或者降低利率以及采用其他不正当手段,吸收存款,发放贷款的;

(四)出租、出借经营许可证的;

(五)未经批准买卖、代理买卖外汇的;

(六)未经批准买卖政府债券或者发行、买卖金融债券的;

(七)违反国家规定从事信托投资和证券经营业务、向非自用不动产投资或者向非银行金融机构和企业投资的;

(八)向关系人发放信用贷款或者发放担保贷款的条件优于其他借款人同类贷款的条件的。

Article 75 If a commercial bank commits one of the following acts, it shall be instructed by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council to rectify and, in addition, be fined not less than 200, 000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; if the circumstances are particularly serious, or if the bank fails to rectify at the expiration of the time limit,the banking regulatory authority under the State Council may instruct it to suspend business for rectification or revoke its business license; and if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(1) refusing to accept, or hindering, inspection and supervision by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council;

(2) providing financial and accounting reports, statements and statistical statements which are false or in which important facts are concealed; or

(3) failing to observe the regulations governing the capital adequacy ratio, the asset liquidity ratio, the ratio concerning loans granted to the same borrower, or other regulations of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council relating to control of assets-liabilities ratio.

第七十五条 商业银行有下列情形之一,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,并处二十万元以上五十万元以下罚款;情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,可以责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)拒绝或者阻碍国务院银行业监督管理机构检查监督的;

(二)提供虚假的或者隐瞒重要事实的财务会计报告、报表和统计报表的;

(三)未遵守资本充足率、资产流动性比例、同一借款人贷款比例和国务院银行业监督管理机构有关资产负债比例管理的其他规定的。

Article 76 If a commercial bank commits one of the following acts, it shall be instructed by the People’s Bank of China to rectify; if there are unlawful gains, such gains shall be confiscated; if the unlawful gains exceed 500,000 yuan, it shall, in addition, be fined not less than the amount of such gains but not more than five times that amount; if there are no unlawful gains or such gains are less than 500,000 yuan, it shall be fined not less than 500,000 yuan but not more than 2,000,000 yuan; if the circumstances are particularly serious, or if the bank fails to rectify at the expiration of the time limit,the People’s Bank of China may put forward a proposal that the banking regulatory authority under the State Council instruct it to suspend business for rectification or revoke its business license; and if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(1) engaging in the settlement and sale of foreign exchange without approval;

(2) without approval, issuing, buying or selling financial bonds at inter-bank bond markets, or borrowing loans from abroad; or

(3) in violation of relevant regulations, engaging in inter-bank lending.

第七十六条 商业银行有下列情形之一,由中国人民银行责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,违法所得五十万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五十万元的,处五十万元以上二百万元以下罚款;情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,中国人民银行可以建议国务院银行业监督管理机构责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)未经批准办理结汇、售汇的;

(二)未经批准在银行间债券市场发行、买卖金融债券或者到境外借款的;

(三)违反规定同业拆借的。

Article 77 If a commercial bank commits one of the following acts, it shall be instructed by the People’s Bank of China to rectify and, in addition, be fined not less than 200, 000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; if the circumstances are particularly serious, or if the bank fails to rectify at the expiration of the time limit,the People’s Bank of China may put forward a proposal that the banking regulatory authority under the State Council instruct it to suspend business for rectification or revoke its business license; and if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(1) refusing to accept, or hindering, inspection and supervision by the People’s Bank of China;

(2) providing financial and accounting reports, statements and statistical statements which are false or in which important facts are concealed; or

(3) failing to place a deposit reserve in the proportion specified by the People’s Bank of China.

第七十七条 商业银行有下列情形之一,由中国人民银行责令改正,并处二十万元以上五十万元以下罚款;情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,中国人民银行可以建议国务院银行业监督管理机构责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)拒绝或者阻碍中国人民银行检查监督的;

(二)提供虚假的或者隐瞒重要事实的财务会计报告、报表和统计报表的;

(三)未按照中国人民银行规定的比例交存存款准备金的。

Article 78 If a commercial bank commits one of the acts specified from Article 73 through Article 77 of this Law, the directors and senior administrators who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible shall be given disciplinary sanctions; and if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

第七十八条 商业银行有本法第七十三条至第七十七条规定情形的,对直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员,应当给予纪律处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 79 Any unit or individual that commits one of the following acts shall be instructed by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council to rectify, if there are unlawful gains, such gains shall be confiscated; if the unlawful gains exceed 50, 000 yuan, it shall, in addition, be fined not less than the amount of such gains but not more than five times that amount; and if there are no unlawful gains or such gains are less than 50,000 yuan, it shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan:

(1) using the word “bank” in its name without approval;

(2) purchasing 5 percent or more of the total amount of the shares of a commercial bank without approval; or

(3) opening an account in the name of an individual to deposit the funds of the unit.

第七十九条 有下列情形之一,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,违法所得五万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五万元的,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款:

(一)未经批准在名称中使用“银行”字样的;

(二)未经批准购买商业银行股份总额百分之五以上的;

(三)将单位的资金以个人名义开立账户存储的。

Article 80 If a commercial bank fails to submit the relevant documents and information to the banking regulatory authority under the State Council in accordance with relevant regulations, it shall be instructed by the said authority to rectify; and if it fails to rectify at the expiration of the time limit, it shall be fined not less than 100, 000 yuan but not more than 300, 000 yuan.

If a commercial bank fails to submit the relevant documents and information to the People’s Bank of China in accordance with relevant regulations, it shall be instructed by the People’s Bank of China to rectify; and if it fails to rectify at the expiration of the time limit, it shall be fined not less than 100, 000 yuan but not more than 300, 000 yuan.

第八十条 商业银行不按照规定向国务院银行业监督管理机构报送有关文件、资料的,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,逾期不改正的,处十万元以上三十万元以下罚款。

商业银行不按照规定向中国人民银行报送有关文件、资料的,由中国人民银行责令改正,逾期不改正的,处十万元以上三十万元以下罚款。

Article 81 Any unit or individual, without approval of the banking regulatory authority under the State Council, establishes a commercial bank, or illegally takes in deposits from the general public or does so in disguised form, which is serious enough to constitute a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law, and such a commercial bank shall be closed down by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council.

Any unit or individual that fabricates, counterfeits or transfers the business license of a commercial bank, which is serious enough to constitute a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

第八十一条 未经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准,擅自设立商业银行,或者非法吸收公众存款、变相吸收公众存款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;并由国务院银行业监督管理机构予以取缔。

伪造、变造、转让商业银行经营许可证,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 82 If a borrower uses fraudulent means to obtain a loan and a crime is constituted thereby, criminal responsibility shall be pursued according to law.

第八十二条 借款人采取欺诈手段骗取贷款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 83 Any unit or individual commits one of the acts specified in Articles 81 and 82 of this Law, which is not serious enough to constitute a crime, its/ his unlawful gains shall be confiscated by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council; if the unlawful gains exceed 500, 000 yuan, it / he shall, in addition, be fined not less than the amount of such gains but not more than five times that amount and; if there are no unlawful gains or such gains are less than 500,000 yuan, it / he shall be fined not less than 500,000 yuan but not more than 2,000,000 yuan.

第八十三条 有本法第八十一条、第八十二条规定的行为,尚不构成犯罪的,由国务院银行业监督管理机构没收违法所得,违法所得五十万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五十万元的,处五十万元以上二百万元以下罚款。

Article 84 If an employee of a commercial bank, taking advantage of his duties, demands, receives or accepts bribes or, in violation of State regulations, receives or accepts rebates or commissions of any description, which is serious enough to constitute, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law; and if it is not serious enough to constitute a crime, a disciplinary sanction shall be imposed on him.

If anyone commits an act specified in the preceding paragraph and causes losses in granting a loan or providing a guaranty, the person shall be fully or partially liable for compensation.

第八十四条 商业银行工作人员利用职务上的便利,索取、收受贿赂或者违反国家规定收受各种名义的回扣、手续费,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,应当给予纪律处分。

有前款行为,发放贷款或者提供担保造成损失的,应当承担全部或者部分赔偿责任。

Article 85 If an employee of a commercial bank, taking advantage of his duties, embezzles, misappropriates or takes into his possession money belonging to the bank or any client, which is serious enough to constitute a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law; and if it is not serious enough to constitute a crime, a disciplinary sanction shall be imposed on him.

第八十五条 商业银行工作人员利用职务上的便利,贪污、挪用、侵占本行或者客户资金,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,应当给予纪律处分。

Article 86 If employees of a commercial bank cause losses by neglecting their duties in violation of the provisions of this Law, disciplinary measures shall be taken against them. If a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be pursued according to law.

If anyone causes losses by practicing favoritism towards his relatives or friends in granting loans or providing guaranty in violation of regulations, the person shall be fully or partially liable for compensation.

第八十六条 商业银行工作人员违反本法规定玩忽职守造成损失的,应当给予纪律处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

违反规定徇私向亲属、朋友发放贷款或者提供担保造成损失的,应当承担全部或者部分赔偿责任。

Article 87 If employees of a commercial bank disclose State or business secrets that they come to know during their employment, disciplinary measures shall be taken against them. If a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be pursued according to law.

第八十七条 商业银行工作人员泄露在任职期间知悉的国家秘密、商业秘密的,应当给予纪律处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 88 If any unit or individual forcibly demands a commercial bank to grant a loan or to provide a guaranty, disciplinary measures shall be taken against the leading members of the unit who are directly in charge and other persons of the unit who are directly responsible for the offense or the individual and, if losses are caused thereby, these persons shall be fully or partially liable for compensation.

If employees of a commercial bank fail to refuse to grant a loan or to provide a guaranty forcibly demanded by a unit or individual, disciplinary measures shall be taken against them and, if losses are caused thereby, they shall assume appropriate liability for compensation.

第八十八条 单位或者个人强令商业银行发放贷款或者提供担保的,应当对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员或者个人给予纪律处分;造成损失的,应当承担全部或者部分赔偿责任。

商业银行的工作人员对单位或者个人强令其发放贷款或者提供担保未予拒绝的,应当给予纪律处分;造成损失的,应当承担相应的赔偿责任。

Article 89 If commercial banks violate the provisions of this Law, the banking regulatory authority under the State Council may, on the merits of each case, disqualify, for the positions for a certain period of time or even for the rest of their lives, the directors or senior administrators who are directly in charge, or prohibit the directors or senior administrators who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible from working in the banking industry for a certain period of time or even for the rest of their lives.

If the act committed by a commercial bank is not serious enough to constitute a crime, disciplinary warning shall be given to the director or senior administrator directly in charge or the other person directly responsible, and a fine of not less than 50, 000 yuan but not more than 500, 000 yuan shall be imposed.

第八十九条 商业银行违反本法规定的,国务院银行业监督管理机构可以区别不同情形,取消其直接负责的董事、高级管理人员一定期限直至终身的任职资格,禁止直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员一定期限直至终身从事银行业工作。

商业银行的行为尚不构成犯罪的,对直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员,给予警告,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款。

Article 90 If a commercial bank or its employees disagree with a decision on a punishment made by the banking regulatory authority under the State Council, or the People’s Bank of China, they may institute proceedings with a People’s Court in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China.

第九十条 商业银行及其工作人员对国务院银行业监督管理机构、中国人民银行的处罚决定不服的,可以依照《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》的规定向人民法院提起诉讼。

Chapter IX Supplementary Provisions / 第九章 附 则

Article 91 Commercial banks established prior to the implementation of this Law, with approval granted in accordance with the regulations of the State Council, shall not be required to undergo examination and approval procedures again.

第九十一条 本法施行前,按照国务院的规定经批准设立的商业银行不再办理审批手续。

Article 92 The provisions of this Law shall be applicable to foreign-invested commercial banks, commercial banks of Chinese-foreign equity joint venture and branches of foreign commercial banks; and where other laws and administrative regulations provide otherwise, the provisions of those laws and administrative regulations shall prevail.

第九十二条 外资商业银行、中外合资商业银行、外国商业银行分行适用本法规定,法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 93 In handling their business such as deposits, loans and settlements, urban credit cooperatives and rural credit cooperatives shall apply the relevant provisions of this Law.

第九十三条 城市信用合作社、农村信用合作社办理存款、贷款和结算等业务,适用本法有关规定。

Article 94 The relevant provisions of this Law shall be applicable to postal enterprises in handling relevant business of commercial banks.

第九十四条 邮政企业办理商业银行的有关业务,适用本法有关规定。

Article 95 This Law shall go into effect as of October 1, 2015.

第九十五条 本法自2015年10月1日起施行。